Date: May 17 2020
Summary: Study involving effective cognitive behavioral-based interventions for increasing smoking cessation in large group settings.
Keywords: ##bibliography #smoking #cessation #jar #addiction #health #cognitive #behavioral #support #group #large #archive
L. E. Carlson, P. Taenzer, J. Koopmans, and B. D. Bultz, "Eight-year follow-up of a community-based large group behavioral smoking cessation intervention," Addictive Behaviors, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 725–741, Sep. 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00081-2.
In this particular study, a cohort of 971 individuals were involved in smoking cessation sessions hosted at smoking cessation clinics between 1986 and 1990. The intervention developed at these sessions for a participant involved attending eight 90 minute group sessions over a period of 4 months. The biggest of the groups reached 110 attendees. 3 months after a group quit date, 39.3% of cohort self-reported as non-smoking. Thereafter, 32.1% and 26.0% of the cohort at 6 and 12 months respectively reported non-smoking. Finally, at an 8 year check-in, 33.9% of the cohort were reached. 47.7% reported not currently smoking (16.2 of total cohort). [pg. 725]
33.9% and 66.1% of the cohort were male and female respectively. Participants averaged an age of 39.9. [pg. 729] Interestingly, it was found that the motivation for the cohort came from oneself with 81.2% saying they wanted to quit. 3.4% said they were motivated by others and 14.5% said they were motivated by themselves and others. [pg. 730] The participants who were not successful in quitting smoking for 3 months reported not being prepared to quit. [pg. 737] The success rates that were reported were reasonably not significantly biased to positive or negative outcomes due to a loose balance between those who started with both great and poor quitting conditions (linked to related quitting factors). [pg. 732] Race was not accounted for in this study.
Each session included topics such as education about the negative consequences of smoking, how to self monitor, and strategies for modifying behavior to disassociate smoking from pleasure. "Butt jars" were used to create aversive sensations to smoking via association with pictures of cancerous organs. In contrast, non-smoking behavior was rewarded in the idea of a "money jar". The money jar contains the money a participant would have used for smoking and is instead set aside to be used to finance enjoyable activity. [pg. 728]
The part of the study program most helpful to participants was the supportive nature of the large group setting. Despite large group sizes, individuals thought they were supported very well. The support and the accepting, non-judgemental atmosphere provided in groups promoted cessation. This study illustrated that a Cognitive Behavioral grounding in smoking cessation can produce success with large group participant. [pg. 738]
Zelko, Jacob. Eight-Year Follow-Up Of A Community-Based Large Group Behavioral Smoking Cessation Intervention. https://jacobzelko.com/05172020232612-smoking-cessation. May 17 2020.