Date: March 24 2020
Summary: What electrodermal activity is and its pros and cons as a biomarker
Keywords: ##zettel #biomarker #biology #physiology #health #signal #signalprocessing #stress #archive
Electrodermal activity (EDA) broadly refers to any electrical activity across the dermis of the skin (the dermis being the outermost layer of the skin). Whenever the body experiences stress – this could be in the form of an ambient temperature change, physical activity, etc. – the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) increases sudomotor innervation, which leads to increases in EDA and sweating. The SNS is directly influenced by parts of the brain responsible for emotional response – the hypothalamus and limbic system. Because of this codependency, EDA is commonly used to study stress and other affective behavior (mood, disorders, etc.).
EDA has been used to study the following sort of conditions:
Arousal in Emotion 
Panic Disorder 
Attention Deficit Disorders 
Side Effects from Cancer Treatments 
The use cases of EDA is further explored by Boucsein et. al. in their book, Electrodermal Activity. 
Furthermore, EDA is a generalization of the overall signal – in reality, this signal is often decomposed into Skin Conductance Response (SCR) and Skin Conductance Level (SCL).
Zelko, Jacob. What Is Electrodermal Activity?. https://jacobzelko.com/03242020003215-eda-explained. March 24 2020.
 M. M. Bradley and P. J. Lang, “Emotion and motivation.” 2007.
 M. M. Bradley, “Natural selective attention: Orienting and emotion,” Psychophysiology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2009.
 A. Bechara, H. Damasio, A. R. Damasio, and G. P. Lee, “Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making,” J. Neurosci., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 5473–5481, 1999.
 S. Geuter, M. Gamer, S. Onat, and C. Büchel, “Parametric trial-by-trial prediction of pain by easily available physiological measures,” PAIN®, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 994–1001, 2014.
 T. Reinhardt, C. Schmahl, S. Wüst, and M. Bohus, “Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST),” Psychiatry Res., vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 2012.
 E. B. Prince et al., “The relationship between autism symptoms and arousal level in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, as measured by electrodermal activity,” Autism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 504–508, 2017.
 F. H. Wilhelm and W. T. Roth, “Taking the laboratory to the skies: Ambulatory assessment of self-report, autonomic, and respiratory responses in flying phobia,” Psychophysiology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 596–606, 1998.
 A. E. Meuret et al., “Do unexpected panic attacks occur spontaneously?” Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 985–991, 2011.
 R. G. O’Connell, M. A. Bellgrove, P. M. Dockree, and I. H. Robertson, “Reduced electrodermal response to errors predicts poor sustained attention performance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Neuroreport, vol. 15, no. 16, pp. 2535–2538, 2004.
 M.-H. Savard, J. Savard, A. Caplette-Gingras, H. Ivers, and C. Bastien, “Relationship between objectively recorded hot flashes and sleep disturbances among breast cancer patients: Investigating hot flash characteristics other than frequency,” Menopause, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 997–1005, 2013.
 W. Boucsein, Electrodermal Activity. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012.