Date: January 1 2021
Keywords: ##bibliography #contact #tracing #review #automated #ethics #archive
I. Braithwaite, T. Callender, M. Bullock, and R. W. Aldridge, "Automated and partly automated contact tracing: a systematic review to inform the control of COVID-19," The Lancet Digital Health, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. e607–e621, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30184-9.
Effective contact tracing systems rely on detection and isolation of cases which require rapid, active surveillance. 
Contact tracers reported an app-based system was faster and more accurate than a paper-based system and reduced travel time.  Technical support, like training, was a recurrent theme. Training on the Epi Info Viral Hemorrhagic Fever app in eight countries was often provided by staff who "had received only minimal training themselves" leading to "inefficient and incorrect use".  Technical expertise was emphasised as an important but scarce resource in two other studies. ,  Training contact tracers took between 2-3 days , 
The aspects involved in implementing automated contact tracing, such as the practical, technical, legal, and ethical, are complicated. – Uptake, privacy, security, and testing access have been identified as potential barriers to effectiveness. ,  Automated contact tracing could lead to unprecedented surveillance and eroded public trust, if data is misused. 
With assumed 75% uptake of the system, Suppressing the COVID19 outbreak required concurrent measures (e.g., shielding vulnerable groups,  remote working, and limiting the number of contacts per day to fewer than 10 outside of work and school)  alongside automated contact tracing. According to Hinch and colleagues  most cases did not result in containment, except when quarantining all household members of contacts who had direct contact with a case (recursive contact tracing). 
Key questions before implementing an automated contact-tracing system to be asked:
Have public acceptability and privacy concerns been addressed
How the system is implemented with public health expert supervision
Likelihood of effectivity, cost, and equity of solution. , 
Manual contact tracing could be improved by or work with automated approaches. It could contribute to reducing transmission and offsetting work of manual contact tracing. Benefits of automated approaches should be weighed against implementation costs and broader risks.
The effectiveness of automated contact tracing in reducing disease transmission depends on both population uptake and timeliness of intervention.  As with manual contact tracing, automated contact tracing relies on accurate and reliable identification of encounters during which transmission occurs. Technology could be used for automated processing of test results or symptom reports and by use of smartphone sensors to identify and notify contacts instantaneously who are at risk of infection. –
Zelko, Jacob. Automated And Partly Automated Contact Tracing: A Systematic Review To Inform The Control Of COVID-19. https://jacobzelko.com/01022021034134-automated-contact-tracing. January 1 2021.
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